When individuals move and mate randomly throughout the habitat, as expected based on field observations, a population should be genetically homogeneous. Conversely, when movement is prevented by barriers or limited by fidelity to the natal site, the population will show discontinuous genetic structure or isolation by distance (Wright, 1969, Rousset, 2004 and Holderegger and Wagner, 2008). Several molecular studies on Mongolian gazelles have been carried out with mitochondrial sequences. All results suggested the species contains quite high genetic BMS-833923 despite the historical habitat loss (Sorokin et al., 2005, Sorokin and Kholodova, 2006, Chen et al., 2012 and Okada et al., 2012). Analyses of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and control region sequences in samples from Russian and Mongolia suggested there are two genetic lineages within the population that are unrelated to geographical location (Sorokin et al., 2005 and Sorokin and Kholodova, 2006). Okada et al. (2012) obtained similar results by analyzing samples from a wide range of Mongolia and additionally suggested a past population expansion based on molecular indices. Although these studies hinted at nomadism, the population genetic structure must be investigated with biparental hypervariable markers such as microsatellites, as results from different types of markers are not always consistent (Toews and Brelsford, 2012). The spatial distribution of autosomal microsatellite alleles reflects gene flow in both sexes, while matrilineal mitochondrial markers show that of maternal lineages. Gene flow is caused by dispersal from the natal site and consequent reproduction, so the genetic structure in markers with different modes of inheritance is used to investigate sex-biased dispersal (Prugnolle and de Meeus, 2002). Additionally, microsatellite markers evolve faster than mitochondrial sequences and should allow the examination of recent reductions in gene flow caused by anthropologic barriers, such as rails or roads (e.g., Novembre et al., 2008, Balkenhol and Waits, 2009 and Edwards and Bensch, 2009).
Multibeam bathymetry; Autonomous underwater vehicle; Sub-bottom chirp profiles; Submarine canyons; Morphology; Bedforms; Axial channel; California continental margin
Submarine canyons are present in most continental margins of the world (Shepard, 1981; Harris and Whiteway, 2011). They are important hotspots of Rimonabant (Vetter and Dayton, 1998 and Duffy et al., in press) and act as sediment routing systems that transport terrigenous material and associated organic matter, pollutants and litter from the continental shelf to the deep margins and basins (Nittrouer and Wright, 1994, Canals et al., 2006, Canals et al., 2013, Venkatesan et al., 2010 and Schlining et al., 2013). Deeply buried canyons can also be significant oil and gas reservoirs (Stow and Mayall, 2000 and Piper and Normark, 2001). The presence of submarine fans at the termini of submarine canyons, which are mostly formed by recurrent turbidity currents, demonstrates that submarine canyons are efficient sediment pathways from the continent to the deep sea (Wynn and Stow, 2002 and Normark and Carlson, 2003).
Table of bedform examples used in this PR-619 study, along with abbreviations. * denotes bedforms that display up-current migrating crests or reference is made to up-current migrating crests within the literature. † denotes volcanic bedforms. Volcanic bedforms are either directly on a volcanic slope, formed through volcanic processes, or inferred to be composed of volcaniclastic grains. ‡ denotes bedforms that are interpreted to be formed by bottom currents.LocationCodeKey referenceAdriatic shelf*‡ASCattaneo et al. (2004)Adventure Island†AILeat et al. (2013)AgadirAMacdonald et al. (2011)Amazon Fan*AFNormark et al. (2002)Barra Fan*BFHowe (1996)Blake–Bahama Ridge‡BBRFlood (1994)Bristol Island†BILeat et al. (2013)Carnegie Ridge‡CRLonsdale and Malfait (1974)Cilaos canyons†CCSisavath et al. (2011)Cilaos Distal FanCDFSisavath et al. (2011)Cilaos Proximal Fan†CPFSisavath et al. (2011)Dakataua Caldera — New Britain†DCSilver et al. (2009)Eel CanyonECLamb et al. (2008)Eel FanEFLamb et al. (2008)El Julan Channel*†EJCWynn et al. (2002)Espirito Santo Basin*ESBHeinio and Davies (2009)Etang-Salé Sector — La reunion†ESSBabonneau et al. (2013)Ewing Drift‡EDFlood and Shor (1988)Falkland Trough*‡FTCunningham and Barker (1996)Fraser River Delta (outer southern channel margin)*FRD-SCMHill (2012)Fraser River Delta (slope)*FRD-SHill (2012)Fraser River Delta (southern channel margin interior)*FRD-SCIHill (2012)Fraser River Delta (tributary channels)*FRD-TCHill (2012)Gardar Drift Area A‡GDAManley and Caress (1994)Gardar Drift Area B‡GDBManley and Caress (1994)Gardar Drift Area C‡GDCManley and Caress (1994)Gulf of Cadiz low velocity zone‡GC-LHabgood et al. (2003)Gulf of Cadiz medium to high velocity zone‡GC-MHHabgood et al. (2003)Gulf of Cadiz medium velocity zone‡GC-MHabgood et al. (2003)Haleakala Volcano†HVEakins and Robinson (2006)Hawaiian Ridge†HRMoore et al. (1994)Horseshoe ValleyHSVMacdonald et al. (2011)Humboldt Slide*HSLee et al. (2002)Kahouanne Seamounts†KSLebas et al. (2011)Kimbe and Hixon Bay†KHBSilver et al. (2009)La Jolla Canyon systemLCPaull et al. (2013)La Palma*†LPWynn et al. (2000a)Landes Plateau (Bay of Biscay)*LP — BBFaugères et al. (2002)Laurentian fanLFPiper et al. (1985)Lower Nazare CanyonLNCArzola et al. (2008)Macaulay Island†McIWright et al. (2006)Margin of Gabon — Lower Slope*MGLSLonergan et al. (2013)Margin of Gabon — Upper Slope*MGUSLonergan et al. (2013)Montagu Island†MILeat et al. (2013)Monterey CanyonMCPaull et al. (2010)Monterey EastMEFildani et al. (2006)Moroccan continental rise*MCRJacobi et al. (1975)Navarinsky Canyon*NCKarl and Carlson (1982)Noeick River Delta Lower-slopeNRDLBornhold and Prior (1990)Noeick River Delta Mid-slope*NRDMBornhold and Prior (1990)Orinoco Valley*OVErcilla et al. (2002)Rhone LeveeRLGirardclos et al. (2012)Rhone main delta channelRDCGirardclos et al. (2012)Rockall Trough*RTHowe (1996)Saint-Etienne sector — La reunion†SSSBabonneau et al. (2013)San Mateo*SMCovault et al. (2014)Selvage (NE Atlantic)*SWynn et al. (2000b)Setubal CanyonSCArzola et al. (2008)South Candlemas Embayment†SCELeat et al. (2010)South China Sea Wave Field 1*SCS1Gong et al. (2012)South China Sea Wave Field 2SCS2Gong et al. (2012)South Korea PlateauSKPLee and Chough (2001)South Taiwan Channel*STCKuang et al. (2014)Southern Hikurnagi trough (Drift/toe of the stalk Chatham Rise)‡SHT — DTLewis and Pantin (2002)Southern Hikurnagi trough (Foot of the Chatham Rise)SHT — FLewis and Pantin (2002)Southern Hikurnagi trough (foredeep to trench transition)SHT — FTLewis and Pantin (2002)Southern Hikurnagi trough (left-bank levee)*SHT — LLewis and Pantin (2002)Southern Hikurnagi trough (overbank plain)SHT — OPLewis and Pantin (2002)Squamish Delta*SDHughes Clarke et al. (2012)Stromboli Volcano†STVCasalbore et al. (2010)Sumisu volcano†SVTani et al. (2007)Tiber Pro-delta slope*‡TTrincardi and Normark (1988)Tolokiwa Island†TISilver et al. (2009)Toyama deep-sea channel*TDSCNakajima and Satoh (2001)Var Fan*VFPiper and Savoye (1993)Var Sedimentary Ridge*VSRMigeon et al. (2001)West Dongsha Channel*WDCKuang et al. (2014)West Mariana Ridge†WMRGardner (2010)West Penghu Channel*WPCKuang et al. (2014)West Taiwan Channel*WTCKuang et al. (2014)Whittard Channel MarginWCMMacdonald et al. (2011)Zapiola Drift*‡ZDFlood and Shor (1988)Zavodovski (north fan)†ZNLeat et al. (2010)Zavodovski (south)†ZSLeat et al. (2010)Full-size tableTable optionsView in workspaceDownload as CSV
On the assumption that SNDX275 all 19 sand layers record typhoon strikes, age–depth models can be used to estimate the ages of typhoon strikes for each study area. The R software package BACON (Bayesian accumulation histories; Blaauw and Christen, 2011) was used to create an age–depth model for each site, using uncalibrated AMS radiocarbon dates and an age of − 2 cal. yr. BP for the surface at Cha-am (AD1952 – landfall of Typhoon Vae – see discussion below) and an age of − 63 cal. yr. BP for the surface at Kui Buri (AD2013 – the year the cores were collected) (Fig. 7). BACON utilizes Bayesian techniques for calibration and age modeling simultaneously. Prior information, such as stratigraphic order, is incorporated into the calibration approach ensuring germ cells age models are consistent with sample order and that modeled ages increase with increasing depth. This approach has been shown to produce reliable age–depth models, with effective handling of outliers and with more realistic estimates of age model uncertainties (Shanahan et al., 2012).
Fig. 7. Close-up views of bathymetry and raw SSS imagery focusing on water column anomaly part of (a) hollows, (b) hole A, and (c) fissure-like feature on cone B. Black line shows AUV track line and the line length in bathymetry and raw SSS imagery 6 his the same. Contour intervals are 2 m. Sun-illuminated from the north for panels a and b, and from the east for panel c.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
5.1. Volcanic morphology and hydrothermal system of the Daiichi-Amami Knoll
The detailed morphology, which indicates the presence of volcanic structures such as a conical edifice, two cones with fissure-like features, and a depression with numerous irregular-shaped hollows, are revealed by our high-resolution bathymetric mapping in the Daiichi-Amami Knoll. Rhyolites and hydrothermal vent mussels were dredged or sampled on the summit (Yokose et al., 2014: Ishizuka et al., 2014) and hydrothermal indicators of lower pH (~ 7.6) and high concentrations of 3He were observed in the depression (Ishibashi et al., 2014 and Wen et al., 2014). These observations, together with our high-resolution bathymetric data, suggest that the Daiichi-Amami Knoll is a hydrothermally active volcanic knoll.
Fig. 5. Impulse responses, joint reform in product and labor markets.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
4.2. Business PD 173074 dynamics
Once deregulation is completed, the economy may face a different adjustment to aggregate shocks. From a theoretical point of view, product and labor market reforms affect cyclical fluctuations through different channels. When barriers to entry fRfR are relaxed, the economy fluctuates around a steady state with a larger number of producers, smaller markups and smaller profits at the producer level. As a result, the present discounted value of entry varies less in response to aggregate disturbances, reducing the variability of markups and profits. In turn, reduced firm-level volatility results in smaller volatility at the aggregate level. As shown in Table 5, setting product market regulation to the U.S. level reduces the volatility of the unemployment rate by 30 percent. Output volatility falls by 7 percent.
A reduction in unemployment benefits b generates similar effects, even though for a different reason. Specifically, lower unemployment benefits reduce the returns to nonmarket activities by worsening the workers\’ outside option. For this reason, real wages co-move more strongly with aggregate productivity, dampening the sensitivity of job creation and destruction to aggregate productivity shocks. When the benefit replacement rate is set to the U.S. level, the volatility of the unemployment rate approximately halves, while output volatility falls by 10 percent.
We further explore the sources of chaebol stock return comovement by evaluating the relative importance of two fundamental components of stock returns, cash flow news and discount rate news (Campbell, 1991). Stock returns change due to innovations in expected future cash flows-which measures real activity-and innovations in the discount rate applied to those cash flows, which measures financial activity. Therefore, we decompose unexpected stock returns into expected cash flow and discount rate news by utilizing the return decomposition framework in Vuolteenaho (2002). We find that AZD 8055 stock return comovement is, on average, more strongly related to cash flow news comovement than discount rate news comovement, suggesting that real activity is more important than financial activity in explaining chaebol stock return comovement.
Our study is related to Kim et al. (2015), who focus on comovement before and after the 1997 Asian financial crisis. The authors find that business group comovement increased following the crisis, which they attribute to being in investors’ preferred “habitat” along the lines of Barberis et al. (2005). In addition, Kim et al. find that comovement is not related to simple fundamental measures such as ROA, cash flow, and related party transactions. We extend Kim et al.’s results by decomposing business group comovement into cash flow news and discount rate news. Our results contrast with those of Kim et al. in that we find substantial evidence that business group comovement is related to fundamental factors, as evidenced by group earnings comovement as well as our evidence from the decomposition of group returns.
Fig. 7. Recurrence plot of floating potential oscillations at a discharge voltage (a) V1 = 301 V and (b) V1 = 390 V.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
Fig. 8. Effect of embedding dimension on correlation sums. The scaling region PCI34051 shown between two vertical lines. The best fitting is shown by the dashed line.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
Fig. 9. Correlation dimension Dcorr vs applied voltage is shown in the figure. The vertical dotted lines denote the voltage at which the chaos has been observed.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
In conclusion, we report the experimental observation of order–chaos–order–chaos transition associated with the evolution of multiple ADL. The results from the analysis of real-time signals, the power spectrum, phase space trajectories, state space reconstruction and Lyapunov exponent confirm the existence of order–chaos–order–chaos transition. It is observed that the system complexity has increased as the system undergoes chaotic transition and stabilizes itself when it is in an ordered state. The periodic behavior is associated with well separated boundaries of ADLs and chaotic behavior corresponds to the diffused boundaries. Therefore we conclude that for case of well defined boundaries between ADLs the particles are trapped within the potential structure. However in the case of diffused boundaries of ADLs, the trapped particles may cross the weak potential structures leading to chaos.
Fig. 2(b) shows an Ag protrusion on an Ag2S island. To form the Ag protrusion, a voltage of −1 V was applied to a Pt tip for 1 s while the tip and Ag2S were in contact with each other. As a result, there was a maximum flow of current of 1 μA with compliance after formation of the Ag protrusion. In the case of an atomic switch with a nanometer-scale tunneling gap, direct observation of precipitated Ag atoms YPYDVPDYA difficult because only a small number of Ag atoms, which fill a 1-nm gap, contribute to the switching operation based on electrochemical reaction. In the present experiment, the observed Ag protrusion is not on an atomic scale but a nanoscale (∼30 nm in height). However, since shrinkage of an Ag2S island was observed after formation of the Ag protrusion, as shown in Fig. 2(b), recessive is confirmed that Ag ions in Ag2S are required to form the Ag protrusion.
In summary, an Ag2S island and nanoscale Ag protrusion were observed using an STM. To investigate the mechanism of neuromorphic operations in an atomic switch, direct observation of an atomic-scale protrusion is required because it is expected that these operations are based on the stable/unstable formation of atomic-scale protrusions. The formation of an atomic-scale Ag protrusion will be investigated in future work.
Vero Erteberel were used for virus replication, titration and UV inactivated viral test . A thin layer of viral stocks, at a distance of 15 cm, was exposed for 5–10 min to UV radiation at a wavelength of 280 nm. UV irradiated viruses that were unable to form plaques were considered to be UV inactivated.
2.3. Cell phenotype analysis
In vitro short-term cultures of whole blood samples were performed. Whole blood was stimulated in vitro with UV-inactivated VACV for 6 h at 37 °C and 5% CO2. Approximately 1 × 104 PFU of Vaccinia virus strain WR was added per 1 × 106 leucocytes. Control cultures were maintained in culture media for the same period of time. Cultured cells were washed in FACS buffer and stained with monoclonal antibodies against CD4, CD8, CD45RO, CCR7, and CD62L. Cell preparation was incubated in the dark for 30 min at room temperature. Following incubation, erythrocytes were lysed, the cells washed and fixed in FACS fix solution. A total of 100,000 events/tube were acquired using a FACScalibur flow cytometer (Becton Dickinson). The CELLQuestTM software was used for data acquisition and the FLOW JO Version 7.5.5 software for analysis.